New book in Dutch

Eet vet word slank

Eet vet word slank gepubliceerd januari 2013

In dit boek lees je o.a.: * heel veel informatie ter bevordering van je gezondheid; * hoe je door de juiste vetten te eten en te drinken kan afvallen; * hoe de overheid en de voedingsindustrie ons, uit financieel belang, verkeerd voorlichten; * dat je van bewerkte vetten ziek kan worden.

Trick and Treat:
How 'healthy eating' is making us ill
Trick and Treat cover

"A great book that shatters so many of the nutritional fantasies and fads of the last twenty years. Read it and prolong your life."
Clarissa Dickson Wright

Natural Health & Weight Loss cover

"NH&WL may be the best non-technical book on diet ever written"
Joel Kauffman, PhD, Professor Emeritus, University of the Sciences, Philadelphia, PA

Soy Online Service

Birds, soy and thyroid disorders

Excerpt from Diseases of Caged Birds, pages 74-75

Author: Elisha W. Burr.

TFH Publications Inc, ISBN 0-8138-0362-4

Goiter (thyroid dysplasia), Goiter can occur as a result of hypothyroidism caused by iodine deficiency. Some authors consider it very rare (Rosskopf et al. 1982). Others have reported high incidence of this disorder (Blackmore and Cooper 1982). This can be explained by geographical considerations and dietary habit conditions.

Etiology. As in all animals, iodine is required for thyroxin synthesis. A deficiency in the diet can result in decreased secretion of the hormone. Other factors can also stimulate the appearance of thyroid dysfunction (many plants (e.g., soybean) provide goitrogenic principles that inhibit thyroxin synthesis even if iodine is adequately supplied). This disease is unknown in seabirds, which receive large amounts of iodine from the fish in their diet. For caged birds eating only seeds, iodine supply can be in- sufficient and thyroid dysfunction can appear. Oyster shell grit contains an appreciable amount of iodine and can prevent the disease (except in Budgerigars). As a consequence of thyroxin deficiency, the thyroid-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary is released in increased amounts and the thyroid follicles become hyperplastic.

Clinical Signs. Thyroid hormones stimulate metabolism. Their deficit results in systemic disturbances. Affected birds are lethargic and inactive and exhibit poor condition (dry skin, ragged plumage). They are unable to maintain body temperature when exposed to environmental changes, their blood cholesterol increases, and body weight tends to increase due to the deposition of excess fat. Many birds with fatty tumors and fatty liver have hypothyroidism (Sitbon and Mialhe 1980). The affected birds also show slower heart and respiratory rates and reduced fertility and excrete small, constipated droppings.

Thyroid insufficiency presents a characteristic feature in Budgerigars, in which dystrophy of the glands produces mechanical obstruction of the respiratory and digestive tracts. The weight of the glands is normally 5-40 mg, and when thyroid insufficiency is present, may exceed 300 mg (Schone and Arnold 1980; Black- more and Cooper 1982). Both lobes of the thyroid gland lie at the thoracic inlet where space is limited; thus an increase in size compresses the trachea, the syrinx, and sometimes the esophagus.

The major clinical signs are labored respiration with squeaking noises. These symptoms are often considered asthmatic or a respiratory infection (chronic respiratory disease). Digestive disturbances, such as regurgitation of food, slow emptying of the crop, and crop dilatation, are also commonly seen. Severe loss of weight (emaciation) ensues (Wise 1980).

Diagnosis. Diagnosis of thyroid disturbance can be made by blood thyroxin evaluation. The normal values vary according to species. Nor- mal ranges for eleven species have been suggested by Rosskopf et al. (1982) in a study where thyroxin was measured in more than fifty species (Table 12.1). Hyperplasia of the gland usually cannot be palpated or seen by X-ray examination. Gastrointestinal disturbances (e.g., slow emptying of the crop) may be revealed, however, after giving a barium meal (Lafeber 1965).

Therapy and Prevention. Goiter can be treated successfully using either iodine or levothyroxine. Iodine can be given by injection to obtain rapid improvement or orally for mild cases or preventive medicine. Lafeber (1965) recommended daily injections of 20% sodium iodide, 0.01 ml in chronic and 0.02-0.03 mi. in acute conditions. Marked improvement may be obtained within 3 days. For oral therapy, Lafeber recommended adding one drop dilute Lugol's solution (2 parts Lugol's solution to 28 parts distilled water) to fresh drinking water.

Steiner and Davis (1979) recommended a solution of 1 ml 7% Lugol's solution in 14 ml water. Every day for 2 weeks, 1 mi. diluted iodine solution is diluted in 1 oz drinking water. The hormone thyroxine is available in thyroid extract or as levothyroxine. The treatment is given orally in the drinking water, the dosage varied according to the bird's drinking habits (Rosskopf et al. 1982).

To prevent recurrence of the disease, the diet may be supplemented with iodine, finely ground oyster shell grit, or cod-liver oil.



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